Kumquat appeared on the shelves of Russian stores recently. This is a bright orange tropical fruit. It belongs to the family of citrus. In terms of taste and beneficial qualities, the fruit of this amazing fruit is not inferior to any other citrus fruit..
Kumquat tree is forever green. It reaches no more than two meters in height. And if pruning is done on time, the tree will grow to the sides and resemble a shrub. The height of the tree also depends on the size of the pot in which it was planted..
By providing the necessary conditions for kumquat it is possible to grow at home. Let's talk more about the features of growing this exotic plant at home.
In which regions grow Kumquat
This fruit was first grown in China. Now it is grown in Japan, South-East Asia, Europe and the USA.Kumquat - Chinese Mandarin
For a long time, it was not possible to grow kumquat in regions with a cool climate. Seeds were hard to germinate, and if this happened, the cuttings died because of a weak root system. To achieve reproduction of this plant was only possible thanks to vaccinations. ATThe tree of Kumquat has taken root in one of the frost-resistant citrus fruits, the three-leaf poncirus. After that, kumquat survived even at a temperature of -18.
Now this exotic fruit is grown in the Krasnodar Territory, in the Crimea, Ukraine.
In Moscow and Central Russia, kumquat can be grown at home or in a greenhouse.. However, even in the south it is rarely planted in the ground, preferring "home care".
Requirements to the dacha
The land plot on which it is planned to grow Kumquat should be well lit.
Kumquat tree loves moderate moisture around it. To water this plant properly, it is recommended to install an automatic irrigation system at the dacha. It should be remembered that the plant may die if it is poured with water.Kumquat - sun-loving plant
If the air temperature is low or moderate, it is recommended to water the plant every 2-3 days, or less. In hot weather (+ 20-25 ° C), water should be watered every day.
From large temperature drops, a tree can shed its leaves. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure conditions at the dacha so as to avoid temperature drops.
As for the soil for planting this tree, you can buy soil intended for the cultivation of citrus. Also you can cook a special land yourself. It is necessary to mix turf soil, vegetable garden soil, rotted manure, or leaf humus and sand.
At what season and what methods are recommended to plant and propagate the Kumquat tree
Kumquat can be grown from seed. To do this, choose the most ripe fruit. Remove seeds from it. And soaked them in any growth promoter. Plant seeds to a depth of 1.5-2 cm in pots with a diameter of 8 cm. The pot is covered with plastic wrap and left in a warm place. The first shoots can be waited 35-40 days after planting.
And multiply this fruit by the following methods:
- With the help of vaccinations
Experienced citrus growers prefer to propagate it by grafting or layering.
The most favorable time for breeding kumquat grafting is April. A tree planted at this time of the year will settle down better and get stronger faster.Kumquat Shank
Cuttings for planting need to prepare before winter. At least three buds are left on them. Cut cuttings 0.5 cm below the last kidney perpendicular. The upper cut is made oblique 1 cm higher from the kidney. In order to root rooted, it is planted in a pre-prepared ground for citrus fruits, to a depth of 1.5-2 cm and cover with a glass jar. It is important to ensure the future of the tree optimal moisture and sufficient watering.
For reproduction of the tree, the spring season is also chosen by the layering.. To do this, take one-year shoots 20 cm long and 0.5 cm thick. At a height of 10 cm on the bark of the shoot make two cuts through 1 cm. Remove the bark and remove the leaves at a height of 5 cm. Tie a plastic bag with the ground to the shoot.
Features of growing and care
Kumquat tree must be constantly watered and sprayed with warm settled water. If this is not done, the plant may become sick or die from various pests.
In the summer season the tree is kept in partial shade. In winter, on gloomy days, additional lighting is required.
It is necessary to fertilize a tree 2-3 times a month in spring, summer and autumn season.. In the last months of autumn, as well as in winter, it is necessary to fertilize no more than once a month. An aqueous solution of mineral fertilizers is used as a fertilizer. Prepare it as follows: in 1 l. water dissolve 2-3 gr. ammonium nitrate, 1-2 gr. potassium salt and 4-6 simple superphosphate.
It is also useful to fertilize the wood with a solution of wood ash.In spring and autumn, Kumquat should be fertilized 2-3 times a month.
In spring and summer it is recommended to feed the plant with slurry: 1 part of the cow dung is bred in 10 parts of water. This type of feeding should be alternated with mineral fertilizers.
Replanting Kumquat tree is recommended every 3 years. This should be done at the end of February or in March. It is important to make a transplant very carefully. It is required to preserve a whole lump of earth, covered with roots. Drainage in a new tree planting area needs to be updated.
In the spring, when the plant crown is actively formed, it is necessary to prune the tree. The growth of the tree should be uniform on all sides. Pruning must be done when new shoots appear on it. That is, the tree must be in the active growth phase. Trim is important only the stiff part. Only in this case the tree slows down its growth and throws out side shoots.Kumquat crown formation
After pruning, dormant buds are activated, forming shoots. Future shoots must be tied up in such a way that the bush has a fan-shaped shape. Wounds must be treated with garden pitch.. This is done in order to quickly heal the wounds, as well as to prevent the entry of infection. A year after pruning, the tree will acquire an almost perfect crown.
The enemies of this plant
The main enemies of the tree are sucking, gnawing parasites.
The most famous of them:
- Spider mite
If white dots appear on the underside of the leaves, and also if the leaves are twisted and entangled with white cobwebs, signs of spider mite attack.
To combat it, take a tablespoon of tobacco dust, pour a glass of hot water and add 6 oz after 6 days. household soap. The resulting solution is treated wood 3 times with an interval of 6 days.
Garlic also helps rid the tree of this parasite. The head of garlic is crushed and steamed in one glass of boiling water. Insist this solution for about two days. After that, the plant is filtered and processed by it.
Leaves affected by the shield, covered with sticky gum and have a black patina. To fight this parasite, you can use a mixture of one teaspoon of engine oil, stirred in a glass of warm water with 40 grams. laundry soap and 2 tbsp. spoons of laundry powder.Kumquat leaves are struck by a shield
Before proceeding to wood processing with the mixture obtained, it is necessary to cover the ground with a film. The mixture must not be allowed to enter the soil.. Carefully handle the leaves and branches of the affected tree with a cotton swab. Wash off the applied solution after 3-4 hours under the shower. After 6 days, the procedure must be repeated.
What varieties are grown at home
There are some types of wood that can be grown at home:
- Kumquat Nagami - one of the common species. Differs from other varieties of sweet fruits, resembling an olive tree.
- Kumquat Yaponika (this variety is also called Kumquat Maeve) - the fruit is yellow-orange, very similar to lemon. Shrub with oval leaves and short spikes. This variety is frost resistant. It is grown in the south of Russia in the open field.
- Kumquat Fukushi - fruits are very tasty and sweet.
- Kumquat Fukushi
- Kumquat maeve
- Kumquat Nagami
There are also many kumquat hybrids. Below are some of them:
- Limequat - obtained from lime and kumquat
- Orangeback - obtained from orange and kumquat
- Lemonquat - lemon crossed with kumquat
- Calamondin - made from mandarin and kumquat
Kumquat - a beautiful plant, giving unusual fruits of small size. It differs from citrus in that it is eaten with the skin. Growing it at home is quite difficult, because it requires a lot of attention and is very whimsical. But those lucky ones who managed to provide the necessary conditions and care for this tree know exactly what it was worth.