In order to successfully grow blackberries, you need to know and comply with the technology of planting, shaping and proper care. One of the secrets of proper shaping and blackberry garter is the landing of blackberry on the trellis.
Let's try to figure out what a tapestry is and why it is needed. Surely many have heard about her, more than once.
For a start, let’s see what a trellis for blackberry is. Trellis is a special design that performs the function of support and serves as support for the plant itself and its shoots..
It is necessary to know that blackberry shoots on the trellis are fixed in a certain way, in which the shoots are not deformed. Tapestry is most often a series of several supports and a wire or a rope stretched between them in several tiers.
When growing blackberries, especially in large volumes, the installation of trellis is a must-have technique.
The advantage of using trellisGrowing a young blackberry on a trellis
Growing blackberries on the trellis has many advantages, and they are obvious.
- Lower shoots do not lie on the groundand do not smear;
- Berries also do not touch the ground, and do not get dirty, as a result of precipitation or watering;
- Rows of blackberry are well ventilatedwhat is the prevention of the development of fungal diseases;
- Fruits evenly sunlittherefore, maturation occurs earlier.
Also, the tapestry benefits not only the blackberry, but also helps gardeners themselves. It gives the gardener the following benefits:
- Simplifies it care work behind the bush
- Accelerates the cutting process old branches;
- Soil mulching and watering becomes much more convenient;
- Harvesting happens much faster;
- Makes faster preparation for the winter period.
Types of trellis
Two main types of trellis, which are used for the cultivation of berry crops, are widespread. it single and double lanes. Large farmers believe that using a single strip trellis is a less effective way. But the one-strip trellis is well used in small areas and has perfectly taken root among amateur gardeners. Therefore, there are supporters of both single-and two-lane construction.
The one-band trellis is subdivided into several types such as:
- vertical flat;
In fact, it is the same simple construction of supports and wires. Different only ways of garter plants. All varieties are aimed at maintaining blackberries during the growing season and fruiting.
But if the blackberries on the site a small amount, then any of these types of tapestries perfectly cope with their task. The main disadvantage of a one-way trellis is the fact that each escape must be tied up separately. With small amounts of work, this is so significant, but for large-area berry plantations this is a huge minus.
Dual band trellis, in contrast to single-sided additionally provides the ability to carry out the correct shaping. Usually these are two rows of guides parallel to each other.. This design provides an opportunity not to thicken the berry, contributes to the breeding in different directions of more powerful branches, which has a good effect on the future harvest.
This is an improved design of the trellis, which is more often used for large-sized berry plantations.
She, too, has several types:
T-shaped trellisT-shaped trellis design
The name of this simple construction speaks for itself. The basis of this design, no matter what it was made of, looks like the letter "T", hence the name of the trellis. The wire runs along the edges of the upper pole. When forming blackberry bushes, fruit-bearing branches are laid from different sides of the wire. In this case, the center remains free.
V-shaped trellisV-shaped trellis design
She received this name because she looks like the English letter V. It is also called - two-lane sloping trellis. Forming is performed as in the T-shaped trellis.
Y-shaped trellisY-shaped trellis design
Is a modern and new version of the mounting for blackberry, looks like the letter "Y". His pillars often make mobile, for this they are mounted on pivotal hinges. This design is very convenient in operation, it provides the ability to change the angle of the racks. Racks can also be lowered or raised.
Trellis for blackberry do it yourself
The question arises, is it possible to make a reliable trellis for blackberry with your own hands or is it better to buy? Of course, to buy this design is much easier and you can do it in garden stores or on the Internet. But you can try to make a good trellis yourself.
For the manufacture of such a tapestry will need wooden or metal poles, strong enough and reliable, so that they could easily bear the weight of the bushes along with the crop. And a length of 2.5-3 meters, as well as good wire, well, the desire to get to work.
- From one edge of the row with blackberry we dig a hole under the pillar, enough 50-60 cm in depth. If there is a special pit drill, then the pit will be more accurate and it will be much easier and faster to dig. We make another pit from the other end of the row. If your row is long, you will have to use several supports, the distance between the pillars is usually 5-6 meters. Divide your row with blackberries into equal lengths.
- At the bottom of the pit, you can lay a layer of gravel and broken bricks.. This will strengthen the position of the pillars and prevent them from subsiding during operation.
- Set up your posts vertically in prepared pits.. After that, bury the pillars with earth and well tamp them with your feet or with materials at hand, for example, the back side of the spade from the shovel.
- Now it is necessary pull the three tiers of steel wire between the supports. The distance between the wire in the horizontal plane should be about 60 cm. The wire must be well tensioned so that it does not sag. On the extreme poles, the wire is securely fixed.
So a simple three-level trellis for blackberry is ready; it is perfect for any kind of blackberry.
Blackberry landing scheme on the trellis
When growing blackberries on the trellis used different planting schemes. When choosing a planting scheme, the demands of the variety and the methods of forming the bush are taken into account.. As a rule, varieties with less prominent vegetative abilities with a fan type of forming are planted in a row in two or two and a half meters. The aisle is also two - two and a half meters.The blackberry planting scheme depends on the way the bush is formed.
When growing blackberry bush method, a landing scheme of less than 2 × 2 m is used.
The landing pattern can be adjusted depending on the climatic zone. cultivation and varietal characteristics.
Growing and caring for garden blackberry
In the first days after landing It is necessary to water the blackberry abundantly and regularly, especially this is important, in the first month after the landing. In the future, watering should be carried out during the drought period, as well as during fruiting. Normal soil moisture is considered to be between 60-70%.
In between the rows periodically conduct cultivation at a shallow depth. Depending on the weather for the season, up to 6 treatments are performed. This is an additional weed control, and also improves soil aeration.
In the first two years of the growing seasonWhile the blackberry has not grown much yet, it is possible to plant vegetables or siderats in between rows.Blackberry sprouts grow vegetables or siderats
In the fall, the aisles are cultivated or shallow plowing is carried out, and humus and phosphorus-potash fertilizers are introduced. Weeding is performed in rows with loosening the soil.
Also well proven soil mulching. Best of all mulching to produce before the appearance of small shoots. Many use herbicides in the ranks of blackberries to control weeds, but their use is undesirable, as it can have a detrimental effect on the development of blackberries.
In the autumn 5-6 kg of humus and 30 grams of phosphate fertilizers, 50 grams of potash fertilizers are applied.
In the spring 30-40 grams of nitrogen fertilizers are applied.
Forming blackberry bushes on the trellis, garter scheme
There are several different methods for forming blackberry bushes.
The most common way to intertwine blackberry branches between the first, second and third tiers of wire or rope. All other shoots that grow after shaping, lead to the right and left of the center of the trunk, in the future they are displayed on the fourth, upper guide.
Shoots with this method of forming need to be diluted and tied to the guides in the form of a fan, and the young branches are tied to the very last 4th row of wire. The difference of this method is that branches develop more freely, and the bush is better lit.. Therefore, the light-loving varieties will have an earlier harvest.The fan method of forming blackberry bush
In the fall, sanitary blackberry pruning is done. During the autumn pruning, all shoots that have left the seed, as well as shoots with signs of illness or damage are removed.. Also cut off the excess young shoots. Although more experienced gardeners do not cut off the young shoots in the fall. And rationing their number during spring pruning. When buds bloom and it becomes clearly visible, which shoots died due to frost, they are removed. On average, leave no more than 8 young shoots on one bush.
Tapestry - it is not easy beautiful, but also very convenient. It is necessary only once to establish the correct design and enjoy from its use for several years.