The importance of chokeberry - medicinal property of the fruitwhich by the content of antioxidants occupy a leading position.
Culture has a special genetics that contributes to high and stable yields, even with minimal care.
Culture requirements for growing conditions
Chokeberry - the result of the crossing of chokeberry Aronia and rowan ordinary.
The natural habitat of chokeberry is the swamps, sandy plains and mountain slopes of North America. This is an unsightly and undersized shrub, which is fundamentally different from the well-known chokeberry.
Shrubs owe their cultivation and popularity in Russia to the Russian breeder I. V. Michurin. As a result of numerous experiments and practical tests a completely new culture was obtained - chokeberry.
Due to its high winter hardiness, resistance to diseases, unpretentiousness to climatic and soil conditions, the shrub quickly spread over large areas.
Good lowlandswhere the occurrence of groundwater is not more than 2 m. It is isolated by a relatively shallow plant roots, the bulk of which is located up to 60 cm, and the taproot rarely reaches a depth of 2 meters.
With a lack of moisture in the root zone, winter resistance and shrub productivity is reduced.
Chokeberry grows well on different soil types: chernozem, gray-forest, drained peatlands, sod-podzolic. Stony, marshy and saline soils are absolutely unsuitable for its cultivation.
Chokeberry can be planted in a combined hedge or as a solitary plant to decorate a spacious plot.
This is a good option. to strengthen the ravines or the perimeter of the plotlocated along a cliff or river mouth.For the cultivation of chokeberry you need to choose well-lit areas with a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil
The choice of seedlings and varieties of chokeberry
Scientists-breeders introduced a lot of varieties and hybrids of chokeberry. Popular varieties:
Their signs are almost similar, there are insignificant differences in taste and fruiting periods.
therefore the main criterion when choosing a sapling should be purchase of planting material adapted to the conditions of the region.
For planting you need to purchase a one or two year old sapling, it is important to pay attention to the quality indicators.
These are: height up to 1.3 m, healthy bark without traces of damage, developed tap roots not less than 25 cm with a mass of overgrowing roots.For planting you need to purchase in the nursery one or two year old sapling
Productive period of chokeberry in the middle zone 25-30 years. All this time it has been characterized by stable and high yield.
Therefore, to provide one family with fruits, it is enough to plant 1-2 shrubs, which will bear fruit in 2-3 years.
When to plant: fall or spring?
Chokeberry can be planted in spring or autumn. The most preferred for the development of seedlings and gardeners - autumn planting. At this time, you can buy planting material with fresh roots at a bargain price.
In the middle lane of chokeberry planted from mid-September to the third decade of October. During this period, the shrub gradually enters a state of relative rest, but its roots will develop until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C.
Therefore, in the spring the plant will immediately begin to grow the vegetative mass. This gives a great advantage to saplings of autumn planting, which are ahead in the development of plants, planted in the spring for more than 20 days.
Benefit from autumn planting for the gardener - saving time, the plant does not need additional care, except for shelter for the winter.
When spring planting it will be necessary to control the likelihood of recurrent frosts, exposure to desiccant winds and temperature changes.
Regardless of the general recommendations when planting a sapling, you need to focus on the average temperature indicators of the region. Plant can be at least 20 days before the first frost.. If deadlines are missed, the seedling should be prikopat in the ridge until spring.
In the spring the plant is planted before bud breakwhen the air temperature warms up to + 15 ° С.Plant can be at least 20 days before the first frost. If deadlines are missed, the seedling should be prikopat in the ridge until spring.
How to plant: stages of work
Planting pit and substrate for seedlings prepared in advance, preferably in 1-2 months. During this time, the soil mixture is structured, and the nutritional elements will take the forms that are easily absorbed by the roots of the plant. The optimal size of the pit is 60x60x50 (cm), the landing pattern is 2.5x4 (m).
For the preparation of the substrate will need topsoil, removed during the digging of the pit. Its complement components:
- humus or compost 2 buckets;
- superphosphate 120 g;
- potassium sulfate 60 g.
At the bottom of the pit lay a drainage layer of broken brick or rubble no more than 15-20% of the total.
Before planting, the seedling needs to be examined again.. When damaged roots are found, the problem areas are cut to healthy skin, and dried ones are placed in water for 10 hours.
For better survival, the roots are dipped in a mash made of greasy clay, mullein and water.
In light soils the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm. Thus, the root neck of the shrub after shrinking the soil should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level.
I am guided by the recommended criteria, at the bottom of the pit they form a mound of the prepared substrate. On its surface evenly spread the roots of the seedling. It is important to ensure that there are no unnatural bends.In light soils, the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm, the root collar should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level
Roots fall asleep with soil mixture, periodically shaking the stem to avoid the formation of voids. After compaction of the stem and watering of the seedling, need to form a layer of mulch. For this well suited: peat, sawdust, mowed grass or wood chips.
After planting, the above-ground part of the seedling is cut, leaving only 20 cm of length.. When planting in autumn, the procedure is postponed until spring and carried out until bud break.
Departure after landing
Shrub care requirements are minimal. Besides he is rarely affected by pests and diseases. This makes it particularly attractive for growing in the country, where the presence of a gardener is not constant.
Shelter for the winter
The sapling planted in autumn must be prepared for the first winter season. For this they bend down to the ground and press down. This is important to do until the air temperature drops to -1 ° C-2 ° C.
Otherwise, the shrub stalk will lose elasticity and may break. While bending down the bush It is important to ensure that the height of the arc does not exceed 20 -30 cm.
Additionally seedling is covered with spruce branches, and make a layer of mulch higher. In the winters with little snow bush shrub with snow.
In the spring, with the establishment of a stable temperature, the plant needs to be straightened. If it is kept in a low state for a long time, the apical shoots can support it.Black chokeberry sapling is bent to the ground and pressed, covered with spruce branches
Do I need to prune shoots?
For the right balance of yield and yield. adult shrub should be 30-50 strong trunks.
Sanitary pruning is in the removal of old, rotten and bare branches. Shrub lays fruit buds on annual shoots, so they should not be shortened.
To increase the productivity and longevity of the shrub, every 3-4 years you need to spend rejuvenating pruning. During the procedure, shoots of chokeberry are shortened to half the height.
Chokeberry responds well to fertilizing, which should be carried out twice a year. To do this, in the near-trunk circle, based on 1 m2, it is necessary to close up
- ammonium nitrate 20 g (spring);
- potassium salt 20 g, superphosphate 30 g (autumn).
Good results gives foliar top dressing of a bush after floweringwhen they begin to tie fruit. To do this, it is sprayed with an aqueous solution of urea (20g / 10l).Chokeberry responds well to top dressing, which should be done twice a year.
With the accumulation of excessive amounts of nitrogen, the increments and duration of the formation of basal shoots increases. In young shoots, the bark does not have time to woody, and the apical bud to form.
This leads to a strong freezing even with the most favorable winter. therefore in the second half of the growing season, nitrogen fertilizing should not be done.
Watering and loosening the soil
Chokeberry - moisture-loving culture. Watering is especially important for her at the beginning of the growing season and during fruit formation.
With steady hot weather, shrubs are watered every week. The rate of water for adult shrub 30 liters.
To do this, you can make watering furrows at a distance of 30-40 cm from the shrub trunks. With this method, water will penetrate to all the roots of the plant.
Excessive soil compaction promotes strong soil freezing. in the root layers, which significantly reduces the hardiness of shrubs.
Disease and pest prevention
After harvesting and in the spring before bud break, the shrub needs to be treated with fungicides. For this it is sprayed with 1% bordeaux liquid.
Shrub resistant to pests. The reason for the spread of insects on the aronia can be a massive destruction of the site pests.
In these cases, you need to apply a cardinal measure - spraying chemicals.Chokeberry is resistant to pests, sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid to prevent it.
Fruits of chokeberry are good for culinary preparations and especially valuable for its healing properties. Attractive shrub and its decorative.
Plant hedge will transform the backyard background three times a year, ranging from white during flowering and ending with the purple color of leaves in late autumn.
Planting and care for chokeberry aronia: