Successful cultivation and longevity of the cherry is possible only with the absolute health of the tree. Throughout life, a variety of diseases or physiological disorders in internal organs threaten the fruit tree.. Often, such phenomena become a real problem, the trees cease to bear fruit, they dry out and then simply die. This happens even with the strongest trees. In this article we will understand why such troubles happen, we will get acquainted with possible cherry diseases, what preventive measures to take and how to treat the affected trees.
Why cherry does not bear fruit, possible diseases and methods of treatment
Cherry is one of the most disease-resistant crops among fruit trees. These figures have declined significantly, and the main reasons for this are the emergence of new types of fungal diseases and natural disasters.
The reason for the spread of the disease may be non-compliance with the prevention and rules of farming. Rotting plant debris, improper crop alternation, mass distribution of pests, lack of fungicide treatment, contributing to the epidemic of the entire site.
Cherry most often affects diseases:
- Perforated spotting
- Root cancer
Frequent causes of the lack of fruiting, even with abundant cherry blossoms, are dangerous diseases: coccomicosis and moniliasis. These diseases can cause other fruit trees in your garden: cherry, apricot, plum and others.
Holey spot (klyasterosporioz)Holey spot or cherry bastardiasis
This is a fungal disease that affects all tree structures.
- Signs of Calesterosis. Education on the leaves of light brown spots with red-brown border. Affected tissue dies and falls. Torn holes are formed on the sheet. Shoots are covered with cracking spots, from which gum flows. The kidneys become black and shiny.
- Treatment. Pruning and burning of all affected areas of the tree. Sprinkle cherries and near-stem circle with 3% Bordeaux liquid. Digging and complete destruction of plant residues in the near-stem circle. With a strong lesion, the procedure is repeated after a week. Treatment of gum wounds.
- Effects. Premature fall of leaves, shoots and branches. Drying fruits, loss of commercial quality.
Coccomycosis: ways to combat the fungusCherry coccomycosis
This fungal disease, mainly formed on the leaves, less often affects the berries. This disease is inherent in trees growing in the Moscow region and in other regions of Russia.
- Signs of. At the beginning of the disease, small red dots appear on the sheet, as the disease progresses, they become larger and gradually merge with each other. With high humidity on the lower side of the sheet a pink bloom forms. Lack of treatment leads to browning and necrosis, dead tissue falls, and lacerated wounds are formed on the leaves.
- What to do. In the fall (after leaf fall) and spring (before bud break), treat with 4% Bordeaux liquid. Trimming and destruction of the affected areas.
- Effects. Premature leaf fall, exhaustion and death of the tree, yield loss.
Monilioz or gray rotCherry fruit affected by gray mold (moniliosis)
This is a fungal disease that is otherwise called a monilial burn. Cherry becomes infected with moniliosis when the tree begins to blossom, through damage to the bark.
- Signs of. During the wet and warm season, small pustules of white color are formed on the petioles and the lower surface of the leaves, which in appearance resemble branched chains. The spores of the fungus are carried by the wind and insects on the surface of the fruit, forming brown spots on them, which gradually spread over the entire surface. After another 10 days, yellowish pillows (sporodokhii) are formed on the surface of the fetus. The affected fruits fall off or remain on the branches of the cherry tree where the spores of the fungus overwinter and when the air temperature is above + 15 ° they begin to develop.
- Treatment. All plant waste in the vicinity of the tree is collected and burned. The branches of the cherry are cut below the lesion level by 10 cm, the bark is cleaned to healthy tissue. Cherry is treated with fungicides, the main drugs: Azocene, Topsin, Horus (15 g / 10 l).
- Effects. Lack of fruiting, gradual death of the tree, an epidemic on the site.
Anthracnose - disease of berries, how to treatCherry anthracnose
This fungal disease most often affects the fruit of the cherry and remains unnoticed for a long time.
- Signs of. At the beginning of the lesion, dim points appear on the fruits, gradually expanding in the bulges of a pale pink color. At low humidity, the fruit of the cherry mummified, turn black and fall off.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries with a contact fungicide Poliram. Processing carried out before and after flowering, and the third in 15 days.
- Effects. Drying of shoots, yield loss up to 80%.
Godetreatment (hommose)Cherry disease gommosis
Appears after mechanical damage to the bark, frostbite, sunburn or fungal diseases.
- Signs of. Isolation of a thick, colorless or brown resin from gum damage.
- Treatment. Disinfection of wounds with 1% copper sulfate solution, treatment with garden pitch. Affected branches are cut and burned. Lime whitewash spring and autumn.
- Effects. The weakening of the tree, reduced productivity, the death of the branches.
Rust - leaf diseaseCherry leaves are stained with rust
Fungal disease affecting the leaves of the cherry. The causative agent of the fungus is Gymnosporangium sabinae, the host of which is juniper, and the intermediate is pear.
- Signs of. At the onset of the disease, small greenish-yellow spots are formed on the leaves, which gradually increase and the affected tissues swell. A few days after the first signs appear, a powdery coating forms on the surface of the sheet, which gradually darkens.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries before blooming buds 5% Bordeaux liquid, re-spraying 1% drug before flowering. Destruction of plant residues and affected leaves.
- Effects. Decrease in fruiting and winter hardiness, leaf fall.
Scab, what measures to take?Cherry struck scab
Fungal disease that damages the leaves and fruits of the cherry.
- Signs of. After the defeat of the cherry spores of the pathogen, brown-olive spots with a velvety surface appear on the leaves. Yellow circles spread around the spot. Gradually, the spores of the fungus are transferred to the fruit, they form cracks. Unripe green fruits cease to develop.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries and near-stem circle with “Nitrafen” preparation before bud break. After that, you need to do three treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid: during bud break, after flowering, after harvest. If necessary, repeat the procedure.
- Effects. Yield loss.
Root cancer, what to do?Cancer on the roots of cherry
This is a bacterial root disease that appears through contaminated soil.
- Signs of. Appearance on the root neck, main and lateral roots of tumor growths - galls. At the beginning of the disease the growths are small, soft and with a smooth surface. As the disease progresses, they increase in size, acquire a hard and uneven surface. In the autumn growths are destroyed.
- Treatment. Two treatments of cherries with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate: before and after the growing season.
- Effects. Lack of plant nutrition, violation of sap flow, reduced productivity and resistance to disease.
Cherry disease prevention
Despite the fact that some varieties of cherries are resistant to certain diseases - this is a relative concept. The lack of preventive maintenance, violation of agricultural culture, adverse climatic conditions in the aggregate weaken the plantand defeat will happen anyway. Therefore, you need to take care of this in advance.
If the cherries are damaged by protective covers, and this happens when branches break, leaves break, freezers, bark cuts, the risk of damage increases. Rodent damage to rodents contributes to the development of root cancer, which can get into the structure of the tree through vectors or from the affected soil.Mechanical damage to the bark of the cherry
- timely pruning and removal of old, rotten and overgrown branches;
- treatment of wounds with garden pitch;
- protection of cherries in the winter from rodents;
- whitewash with lime from frostblade.
Deficiency of trace elements and moisture
Climate change contributes to mass spread of fungal and bacterial infections. Constant temperature drops between cold and heat create a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms.. In a weak and unprepared tree, the chances of resisting the pressure of fungi and bacteria are very low.
Therefore, autumn dressings are mandatory. How much fertilizer to apply? Based on 1m2 in okolostvolny circle contribute:
- manure (5 kg) or an aqueous solution of potassium chloride (150 g / 10 l);
- water solution of superphosphate (300 g / 10 l).
Preventive treatment with fungicides should be carried out three times a year.. In the spring before bud break to suppress spores and bacteria that overwinter in tree structures. During flowering to secure the result. In the autumn to minimize the activity of microorganisms during temperature changes.Spring processing of trees with fungicides
For this cherry is sprayed:
- in the spring a solution of copper sulphate, soap and water (300g / 50g / 10l);
- summer an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate (30 g / 10l);
- after harvest 1% Bordeaux liquid.
To minimize the risk of developing diseases, each year you must adhere to the rules, these are:
- full removal of plant residues from the site;
- barrel cleaning trees from bark, layers of moss and lichen;
- digging plot weed removal;
- thinning thickened crown;
- right neighborhood and distance between plants.
The lack of prevention at least in one area of gardening, contributes to the spread of pests that are carriers of bacteria. In addition, the massive defeat of cherries by insects greatly depletes the plant. This can be prevented only with full control over the number of pests.
Fall leaves in July or August, causes of tree disease
Often gardeners ask the question: “Why did the cherry drop leaves in July or in August?” And the reason for this is a fungal disease.
After a wet spring, which is replaced by rainy summer, a completely atypical picture can be observed in the orchard: the leaves have fallen, and on the bare branches ripening fruits of cherry. This occurs in the second decade of July. The leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the fruits on such trees become shallow and mummified, which leads to complete or partial loss of harvest.
The culprit of the pathological phenomenon - coccomycosis, which tree was struck in the previous season.. Further, the development of spores of the fungus was promoted by the absence of severe frosts, therefore the infection survived well and, after warming to + 15 °, began to actively propagate spores.Cherry leaves fall in July
With the defeat of coccomycosis cherries do not die, but it is greatly weakened before winter. Each phase of the tree's life cycle has its own meaning.. At the beginning of the growing season, the roots of the tree provide food for the fruit ovary and leaf growth. And after fruiting and leaves, the leaves provide the roots and structures of the tree with nutrients for the winter season.
Therefore, when the leaves from the tree are shed in July, the cherry cannot properly prepare for the rest period. Having survived several such winters, the tree gradually dies.
Therapeutic measures should be started immediately after the discovery of a lesion. It may be necessary to remove most of the skeletal branches, carry out several treatments according to the recommended scheme, but it is impossible to get rid of coccomycosis without these measures.
The fight against cherry diseases will be successful if you are well aware of all the weaknesses of infections.. These are dryness, sunlight, cleanliness and fungicide treatment. Maintaining such conditions is not difficult and does not take much time. And you can lay a healthy foundation when planting cherries, avoiding low-lying areas with stagnant moisture and fog.