Relative winter hardiness, drought resistance and simplicity of the cherry make its cultivation available to any gardener.
But the relatively recently fungal diseases coccomycosis and moniliasis made this process somewhat problematic.
To increase the resistance of cherries to diseases and natural disasters can be already on time landing, and to prevent possible problems with the help of agricultural culture.
The benefits of autumn planting cherries
There is definitely no established opinion about the cherry planting season. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the recommendations It is important to focus on the regional climate and varietal characteristics of cherry.
When landing in the fall the impact of adverse factors for rooting of the seedling is minimized.
After planting the cherries until mid-October, a period with a stable temperature of + 10 ° C- + 15 ° C will follow and the seedling will have time to acclimatize before the first frosts appear.
Additionally, a long rest period helps heal wounds received during transplantation.
Saplings of autumn planting ahead in the development of trees planted in the spring, for 20 days. This is achieved through the development of the root system in the fall, when the buds of the tree are at rest. And so in the spring, the cherry starts to build up the vegetative mass immediately.
All nurseries dig up saplings for sale in the fall. Planting material, which is sold in the spring, is stored in special conditions all winter.
The process of storage, even with the observance of all the rules, is already a violation of the natural development of the seedling. At the same time, roots or internal structures can be damaged, which is difficult to determine by external signs.
In autumn there is an opportunity to purchase a seedling with a fresh root system., which can determine the health of the tree. A large amount of seedlings for sale affects pricing, and therefore planting material in the fall is cheaper, and the choice of varieties more.Saplings of autumn planting ahead in the development of trees planted in the spring for 20 days
Autumn planting is relatively simple and saves gardener's time. It does not involve additional work other than proper planting and shelter of a seedling for the winter.
Regular rains will provide the tree with the necessary moisture, and it will develop the root system until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C. This is a significant time saving in the spring during the peak of garden work.
There are autumn planting cherries and disadvantages. This is a possible freezing of the root system and the above-ground part under the conditions of a strong decrease in air temperature in winter. Damage by icing, squally winds or heavy snowfall are also possible.
There is a risk of damage to seedlings by rodents.. All these factors need to be considered when planting and minimize the possibility of each problem
When to plant cherry in the fall: choosing the right time and a good seedling
Despite the generally accepted guidelines for planting cherries, you need to focus on the average temperature of your region.
Articles that may be of interest to you:
- The benefits and harm of cherries for the human body.
- Planting and care for felt cherries.
- Detailed description of the Vladimirskaya cherry variety.
Approximate terms of landing:
- in the middle lane and near Moscow, cherry is planted after leaf fall until mid-October;
- in the southern regions, planting starts from the beginning of October and continues until mid-November;
- in the northern regions and in the Urals, cherry is planted only in spring.
You also need to take into account the variety of cherries.If the tree is characterized by low frost resistance, it is better to postpone the landing until spring.
Seedlings should not be planted if the optimum time is missed., they need to be properly maintained until spring. For this, an incremental trench is formed. It has seedlings at an angle of 30 °, the roots and root neck are sprinkled with soil, the branches are bent to the ground and fixed with boards.
Most cultivars are self-fertile, therefore for the full fruiting of the tree you need to purchase at least three seedlings of different varieties.
In addition, the practice has proved that with a combined planting of self-fertile varieties of cherries, the yield increases several times.Most sorts of cherries are self-fertile, for the full fruiting of the tree you need to purchase three seedlings of different varieties
The quality of seedlings:
- one-year (70-80 cm), two-year (110-120 cm);
- developed fibrous root system of at least 25 cm;
- mature wood without damage.
Too high growth of saplings shows about overfeeding plants with nitrogen, which greatly reduces winter hardiness. Planting such plants before winter is likely to lead to the death of the tree.
Saplings can be sold grafted or rooted own. The grafted cherry is distinguished by an earlier entry into fruiting.
The own-rooted trees have better winter-hardiness and a wider breeding potential.
Where can I plant deretsa: the selection and preparation of the site
Adult cherries tolerate transplantation very poorly. Therefore, to choose a site for growing fruit tree should be given the longevity.
With proper care and favorable conditions bush cherry lives up to 18 years, tree up to 25 years.
Cherry grows well on loam and sandy loam with a neutral alkaline reaction. It is important to take into account the occurrence of groundwater, it should be no higher than 1.5 meters.
Sour soil on a peaty basis is not suitable for fruit trees. Therefore, the upper layer must be replaced by at least 20 cm.
Cherry roots do not compete well with weedstherefore, it is necessary to dig a lot several times, carefully removing the remnants of other plants.Before planting cherries, you need to dig a lot several times, apply fertilizer superphosphate, compost or manure
Wherein based on 1 m2 in the ground you need to make:
- compost or manure 8-10 kg;
- superphosphate 60 g;
- potassium chloride 30 g
When landing on the lowlandswhere the stagnation of moisture and cold air is constantly formed or in areas constantly blown by the winds the tree develops poorly.
Cherry suffers from bark and root cervix, freezing of flower ovaries, gum cure and desiccation of branches. This creates a favorable environment for the formation of dangerous diseases, so cherries need to be cared for.
Landing pit formation, soil preparation
The landing pits are prepared in advance.at least 15 days. Recommended layout for bushy varieties 2x2, for tree trees 3.5x3.5. The optimal size of the pit 50x50x50.
Also need to advance prepare the soil mixture for filling the pit. To do this, use the top layer of soil deposited after digging the pit. It is mixed with nutritional components:
- humus 1 bucket;
- potassium sulphate (30 g);
- superphosphate 200 g
Heavy soil structured by adding 2 buckets of river sand. A drainage layer of expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pit and 1/3 of the pit is filled up with prepared soil and compacted well.
Also it must be remembered that nitrogen is found in large quantities in chicken droppings and swine manure.
Step-by-step guide for planting seedlings
Before landing you need inspect the seedling again, prune all damaged root sections to healthy tissue. Removed all the leaves, which will contribute to the evaporation of moisture.
If the roots are heavily dried, they must be dipped in cold water for 12 hours before the root collar. In some cases, the trunk of seedlings dries up, in which case it will need to be submerged in water by 1/3.
Significantly increases the survival rate of seedlings immersion of roots in a solution of heteroauxin - organic growth promoter.
Step-by-step guide and landing steps:
- installation of a stake (2 m) on the north side of the pit;
- the formation of a mound from the prepared soil mixture;
- uniform distribution of cherry roots on the surface of the hill;
- backfilling and sealing the surface of the wheel circle;
- watering 2-3 buckets of warm water.
Root neck should remain 3–5 cm above the ground surface. Over time, shrinkage will occur, and it will be equal to the soil. If, after watering and shrinkage, the root neck is still not at the right level, it needs to be corrected.
This indicator applies to bushy varieties, despite the name, they are planted in the same way as tree cherry.
Spring and summer care, winter preparation
If there is no regular rainfall in summer, around the tree you need to make a hole for watering, and with the advent of frosts fall asleep, otherwise there will stagnate water.
Up to a steady cold snap The stem of the seedling should be mulched with peat or sawdust a layer of 10-15 cm and spud a seedling to a height of 30 cm.
The branches of the tree are tightly tied to the cola with a soft material. Barrel tied with warm breathable material, they lay a garden net on top and cover it with a thick layer of spruce branches.
Spring need to be unlearning and preventive treatments. against bacterial and fungal infections. Prior to the awakening of the kidneys, it is obligatory to trim the conductor and each branch by 1/3. This is done to regulate the ratio of the roots to the above-ground part, which is disturbed when the seedling is digging.
With this approach to planting in open ground Cherry is pre-formed disease resistance, and with regular preventive measures, infections have almost no chance.
Thus, the basis of stable fruiting and abundant harvest and durability of the fruit tree - the correct planting in the country and the rooting of the seedling.
therefore this event should be taken very carefullyby planning each stage in advance.