The diet of any person should include at least 70% of vegetables. A good addition is fresh greens, the chemical composition of which is rich in valuable vitamins and minerals. Arugula is considered to be one of the most popular salad ingredients, but when grown in summer cottages it is rarely possible to obtain a product with an exquisite spicy-nutty flavor. The whole secret lies in agricultural technology, rules of planting and care, which will be discussed in this article.
What is arugula and how does it look
Plant is kind of salad, belongs to the Indus family of the cabbage family. Initially, greens were considered weeds, but later expanded to the lists of vegetable crops grown in our country. The demand for the product began to grow after the popularization of the Mediterranean cuisine.
Arugula contains rich vitamin compositionwhich include:
- vitamin C;
- vitamins B, E, PP, K;
- essential oils;
- vegetable acids (erucic, oleic, linoleic, etc.);
- steroids and other substances.
Regular consumption of greens has the following effect on the body:
- strengthens the protective function of the body;
- normalizes metabolic processes;
- calms the nervous system;
- reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood;
- increases hemoglobin.
And this is an incomplete list of the achievements of arugula, so its often include diet and health food.
Terms for sowing arugula in open ground
Arugula can be sown several times per season, starting from April to August. It is important that the earth had time to warm up to 9-14 degrees. If planted in cold soil, the process of germination and seedling development is inhibited.
In the south and in the middle lane, you can sow from April 15. In the northern regions it is recommended to use greenhouse or seedling cultivation.
Seeds for seedlings need to plant from late March to early April. Preliminary preparation for seeds is not required, they already have good germination. Saplings are grown in pots, boxes or cups.Arugula Seeds
Shoots appear 4-6 days after seeding. When the sprouts will form 2 true leaves, you need swoop down seedlings in separate containers (plastic cups or peat pots). Grown up shoots are transferred to an open garden bed together with an earthy ball, so as not to damage the root system.
After germination of seedlings, it is necessary to thin out the planting, leaving at first 5 cm between shoots, and later, increasing the distance to 10 cm. Thickness has a negative effect on the taste of the salad.
The most suitable varieties for growing in the country or garden
The range of varieties complicates the choice in determining the variety for cultivation on the site. When buying, you should familiarize yourself with a brief description of the plants and the characteristics of their agricultural practices.
Plant with middle ripening, the growing season lasts 36-38 days. The bush reaches a height of 20-30 cm, forming a raised rosette of narrow long leaves. During flowering appear light yellow inflorescences of small size.
Features of the variety: consistently yields a high yield, external similarity of the culture with dandelion.Arugula Arrow Cupid
The variety matures in about a month (vegetation 28-30 days). The height of the bush reaches 20 cm, the stem is upright with a small edge. The plant blooms in small cream-colored inflorescences.
Plant of early term of aging, the growing season lasts only 21-25 days. Saturated green leaves of large size, in one outlet there are about 20-26 pieces. The height of the bush is about 20 cm.
To taste arugula sweetish with a mustard note. Seed material retains its germination for 4 years.Arugula Poker
Plant of early term of aging, the growing season lasts only 20-25 days. The height of the bush does not exceed 16-20 cm. The leaves are lyrate, slightly rounded. Variety refers to the perennial.
Advantages of the plant: high yield, good transportability, high taste, which have a pronounced nutty note and a slight bitterness.Arugula Olivetta
The rules of planting vegetables in the garden
To arugula filled with rich green color and acquired a pleasant nutty flavor, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of agricultural engineering, in particular planting in open ground.
Seed preparation before sowing
Arugula seeds should be purchased in specialized stores. When buying with hands you will need to spend disinfection of seed. To do this, the grains are immersed for 15 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After the procedure, you need to thoroughly rinse them under running water and dry on a towel.
Other treatments to stimulate growth are not carried out, since the arugula seed is quite good.
Preparing the soil for arugula
When choosing a place for a rucola bed, it should be noted that the plant love neither shade nor direct sunlight. Therefore it is worth picking up a plot that is in the shade one half of the day, and the other in the sun. Ideally, in the midday hours the plants will be in partial shade.Landing should be limited to direct sunlight.
Salad soil is good fertile, loose with a neutral medium or slightly acid. The following predecessors are welcome: carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkin. It is not recommended to plant arugula after: cabbage, turnip, daikon, radish and other cruciferous crops.
What scheme to choose to plant in open ground
Sowing is done in prepared wells 2 cm deep. Interval between rows during transplantation is observed in 30-40 cmbetween the holes - 5 cm. In each hole 2-3 seeds are repaired. A week later, it is necessary to thin the beds, increasing the interval between plants to 10-15 cm.
Departure after disembarkation
Air temperature is considered optimal for the growing season. 14-18 degrees. At a lower rate, plant development is inhibited.
The culture will survive a sharp drop in temperature to minus 7 degrees, but on the condition that the cold will be short. If there are frosts after sowing, then it is necessary to build a shelter of plastic film.
The soil is always on the beds with arugula should be wet, so irrigation is performed regularly. Watering mode: 3-4 times a week.Watering is carried out 3-4 times a week.
In case of settled heat, it is necessary to moisten the soil daily. From the lack of moisture leaves get a bitter taste, and the plant itself produces color.
Weeding and loosening
For normal growing season, the plant requires loose soiltherefore, after each watering or one time, the ground should be pushed down with a hoe or horn.
Simultaneously with this procedure, weeding is performed. Weeds thicken the planting, which provokes the development of fungal diseases, the attraction of pests. In addition, the proximity to the weeds can adversely affect the taste of arugula.
The soil for seeding lettuce should be well fertilized. Then for the entire growing season will need only 1-2 feedings.
Introduce complex mineral compounds should not, because for a short time toxins accumulated in the leaves, do not have time to decompose. It is better to use a solution of chicken dung or rotted manure with irrigation water. Also suitable nitrogen fertilizers.Chicken litter solution is best used as a fertilizer.
Pests and Prevention
Arugula leaves contain a large amount of essential oils, their aroma scares away many pests. However this does not protect against fungal infectionsthat develop well in a humid environment - the soil.
With the defeat of the root system, the stem begins to fade. At the roots of the fungal disease bubbles form small brown color. When the first signs of the disease are detected, the bush must be removed from the bed, and the soil must be treated with antifungal preparations.
Damage to arugula leaves can only cruciferous flea, lovers of radishes and different types of salad. If you cover the seedlings with lutrasil, then the pest will go to look for food in another place.
Harvesting greensArugula is harvested at a leaf length of about 10 cm
Those who have already had experience in the cultivation of arugula know that when overexposed by a plant in the garden the leaves become hard and bitter in taste. Therefore, the harvest should be on time should not be postponed.
One of the signs of ripeness is the length of the leaf, it should reach not less than 10 cm. After ejection of the peduncle, the taste qualities of the salad deteriorate.
Large sockets are cut off completely, other bushes are partially cut off. Use leaves for cooking better fresh. In the refrigerator, it will take only a few days to lay the crop wrapped in food film.
Summarizing, it is worth noting that the cultivation of arugula is a fascinating and simple matter. Adhering to the general rules for the care of a plant can enrich the body with beneficial trace elements, strengthen the immune system and even rejuvenate the skin.
It is possible to plant and grow arugula not only at the cottage or garden, but also at home - on the windowsill or balcony. The main thing is to get acquainted with the compatibility with other plants, plant seeds according to the rules and maintain the temperature at home.