In most parts of Russia, tomatoes are problematic to grow in open ground. A greenhouse is good for adult plants - it produces several times greater yield, besides stretching the collection time. In this review, we will consider the designs of home-made greenhouses, the necessary equipment and materials, especially the construction of facilities for growing tomatoes with their own hands.
Can I grow tomatoes in a greenhouse?
Is it a fairly large culture with easily damaged branches in a close structure? The place is not close. Let's go in order.Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse
To germinate seeds organize a moist soil in a warm place, protected from direct sunlight. Feeding with microelements is desirable.
If the greenhouses are characterized by forced heating, the greenhouse is heated otherwise.
Biological heating is heating with the use of an exothermic process of oxidative rot. This is done like this:
- dig a hole meter depth;
- fill it half layers - straw, then fresh manure, straw is laid on top again;
- on top of this biofuelpiled the ground with a layer of 25-35 cm;
- on filling put the building, the roof;
- water the soil regularly (heated water - before warming up).
Works biological heating about 60-70 days. Straw and manure can be replaced with another organic mixture.Scheme of creating a biological heating greenhouse with manure
The greenhouse effect is associated with biological heating, working in tandem with it: carbon dioxide emitted from organic matter is heated by the sun's rays, warming up the soil, at the same time intensifying decay. The saturation of the internal air with carbon dioxide and other gases (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methane, etc.), as well as moderately high temperatures accelerate the growth of plants.
In recent years, instead of commercial organic often use a ready-made mixture of greenhouse earth. Nevertheless, it is better to put organic waste on the bottom, sprinkling it with a purchased mixture on top.
Light reflectors are also used, various systems of warm greenhouses with artificial heating. This allows you to get a crop and frost.
Choosing the right place
Avoiding shading, have a structure from east to west. From the north side wind protection, insulation with straw, earthen rampart, old logs, shields made from improvised material.The greenhouse should be on a lighted place.
The tomato loves root respiration, the moisture is not sour soil. The plant is suitable light sandy soil. Sand is poured into heavy ground or light additives are used - perlite, vermiculite.
The soil requires rest or crop rotation (it is impossible to plant "tomato on tomato").
The best soil is that in which last year onions, carrots, and plants of the pumpkin family (for example, squash, cucumbers) were grown.Fertilize soil before planting tomatoes
Nitrogen fertilizers can not be abused. Instead of the ovaries and fruits, get lush tops. The usual greenhouse soil is rich in organic fertilizers and vapors providing an excess of nitrogen. It is balanced by the introduction of other components of plant nutrition.
When planting seedlings you can throw ash at the bottom of the hole. Or use superphosphate, potash fertilizers. Later, to accelerate flowering and ovary, also recommend potash fertilizer or ash.
Tomato seedlings are grown separately in a warm room. Then planted in ahead of time prepared, warmed greenhouse. The distance between the plants in a row of 30 cm. The tall seedlings are placed in the wells a little to the side, after cutting off the lower leaves, sprinkled with earth, watered abundantly. When water is absorbed, it is equal to dry earth, so that there is no crust and no cracking.There is no need to deeply deepen the seedlings of tomato, basal neck can be deepened no more than 3 cm
The first 10 days, tomatoes are not watered, and later watered plentifully. For uniform irrigation, two-liter plastic bottles without a bottom, stuck into the ground with their neck down (between two tomatoes under the root) are convenient. Regularly adding water to them, create a good microclimate, improve the condition of the soil.
It is desirable to mulch the soil. Scatter straw, sawdust, old foliage, pine needles or other material with a thin layer on top. Or - expanded clay, perlite.
Types of homemade greenhouses
Suitable for tomatoes conditions: the width of the shelter is not less than 1 meter, the height is not less than 0.75 m. The best landmark is a width of 3 m and a height of 1.9 m (at the highest point).
Designs, as complications:
- film on the ground (tomato does not fit);
- cassette greenhouse (also not suitable);
- warm pit - with sufficient depth, the option is acceptable, but inconvenient - for example, a shower through the PP will flood the pit;
- film tunnel model - plastic, metal or composite arcs of pipes, fittings, on which the film is stretched;
- house - Glazed knocked opening window frames;
- butterfly - outwardly like a house, but knocked out of wood and film;
- bulk greenhouse - the same house or butterfly, but the greenhouse pit is not just in the ground, but inside the foundation, sometimes there is also forced heating.
- Greenhouse butterfly
- Pit greenhouse
- Film Tunnel Greenhouse
- Bulk greenhouse
- House of window frames
Advantages and disadvantages of homemade design
The main advantage of homemade - they are made almost free of improvised material.
- high labor costs and time;
- part of the materials most likely purchased;
- chasing cheapness the homemaker usually dramatically reduces quality - buys cheap coating material, poorly seals joints, does not optimally construct and ventilates the structure incorrectly.
Compromise (it is often the best) option: make yourself, but a reliable design can be created only on the basis of purchased materials.
How to make a simple greenhouse with your own hands?
Having decided on architectural solutions, materials, prices, choose the option. To reinforce the theory, it is advisable to consult a neighbor, watch a video tutorial.
The width of the greenhouse for tomatoes is dictated by:
- sufficient tall,
- a passage in the middle (since the height allows)
- convenience - To easily reach the plants under the wall.
To make a simple film tunnel greenhouse, they take 6 meter pipes, bending and inserting each in the pins that are not fully fastened on the ground. More winning option: pipes, for example polypropylene, are connected with a knee of 3 m, or, better, 3.5 m. (southern slope) x 2.5 m. (northern slope), lining up in several spans connected by tubular arches.Installation of a tunnel greenhouse
For polycarbonate construction, one-piece standard sheets are 210 cm wide and 6 or 12 meters long.. Polycarbonate easily bends semi-arch (that is, a full arch of two sheets). It is well cut, but quickly deteriorates if the edges are not sealed. Polycarbonate is best immediately tightly inserted into the frame and sealed.
Glass greenhouses from window frames are popular. But, the multi-colored shutters, partially assembled without boxes, are hard to customize. The greenhouse opens from the bottom, and such folding shutters should go in a row or be interrupted by the minimum width of the inserts. And the fracture of the roof requires adjustment. As a result, often the desired combination is selected from half of the frames.
The film is taken with a reserve on the area, estimating its additional expense on:
- powdered earth not folding parts;
- gateways - around the folding bar, parts of the frame, under the nail bar;
- reserve reserve at breakage by wind.
Used construction elements:
- Light penetrating coatings among them polyethylene - PE, polyvinyl chloride - PVC, ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA, polyisopropylene - PP. PP agrofibre is an expensive but excellent material: it disperses light (enhancing the greenhouse effect), allows water to pass (no “sweat”), selectively passes gases (airing is not required), retains heat well, resistant to wind, sun and rain.
- Supporting elements - Often these are pipes, mounted on pins stuck into the ground, covered with a folding canopy. They are bent by an arc, and if you use two pipes connected by a knee, then an arch. More options - frames or frames (glazed or polycarbonate), opening for ventilation, as well as wood (it is treated with suitable water repellents).
In addition to structural materials, do not forget about biofuels and a pit for it.
Materials are prepared ahead of time, starting with the biofuel pit and for external heating, if provided.
The sides of the pit, avoiding sprinkling, enclose an improvised foundation of planks, improvised or purchased sheet material. You can, of course, make a capital foundation, but this is already a greenhouse.Greenhouse frame made of wood
- having prepared construction materials begin installation of transverse structures (inserting plastic or glass, if provided);
- then add longitudinal reinforcing elements;
- on the open end have a canopy with zippers, a door;
- stretching the film or nonwoven material;
- at last - powdered edges, thermal insulation of the north side.
For smoothing temperature drops and gas concentrations, it’s practical dig in the tank at the far end of the facility. For example, a 200 liter metal barrel with water (it is convenient to spend a little on watering). Or, a passage in the middle is formed of lying plastic bottles of water.
As we see greenhouse farming is a reliable basis for high-yield tomatoes. And it is available even for a beginner gardener. Good harvest!