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Proper planting and maintenance of tomatoes in the open field

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One of the most popular vegetables on home garden beds is tomato. It is used to prepare various dishes, including winter preparations. Vitamins and amino acids are preserved even in canned fruits. In order to produce good yields annually, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the agricultural practices of tomatoes and the rules of care for growing and planting in the open field.

In the article we will consider the most acceptable and fruitful varieties for the Russian region, the correct methods of planting and the secrets of transplantation, as well as how to fertilize and how to feed the bushes.

The correct timing of planting tomatoes in open ground

Planting starts after setting night temperature with a positive indicator. In the middle lane this period falls on the 20th of May - the beginning of June.

Timing is determined by the type of plant and the climatic characteristics of the region. As soon as the average daily temperature is established +12 degrees, you can begin landing. It is important to take into account the maturity of the seedlings:

  • height of escape reaches 20-25 cm;
  • the stem has 7–9 well-formed leaflets.

The planting of early varieties in the south of Russia and in Ukraine begins from the second half of April to the first days of May. Gardeners of the central regions of Russia transfer seedlings to the garden from May 1 to May 15.

Mid-season varieties are planted 2-3 weeks later. Works are carried out in cloudy weather or in the evening after 20-00.

Young shoots need protection from spring frosts, so after planting a garden bed covered with agrofiber or covered with plastic wrap, which should be completely removed after June 5-10.
For young shoots need to organize a shelter from frost

Varieties resistant to temperatures for planting in Ukraine and Russia

Ukrainian gardeners and summer residents of Donbass have identified the top five best varieties of tomatoes, which give good yields that can be planted in these regions.

Bagheera F1

The plant begins to bear early, pink tomatoes can be harvested before the end of summer. Vegetation lasts 65 days, the weight of a medium-sized tomato is 200-220 g. With proper care, up to 100 tons of crop is removed per hectare.

The hybrid is tolerant to various diseases (Fusarium, Verticillosis), suitable for cultivation in the country in different types of soil, withstands adverse weather conditions.

Bagheera F1

Supernova F1

High-yielding hybrid with early ripening (the growing season - 60-65 days). Large fruit weight up to 300 gr. have fleshy pulp and sweetish taste.

This plant is characterized by: a developed root system, excellent setting, weighty fruits, large yields. Supernova shows resistance to coolness and disease. Fruits keep a trade dress thanks to a dense peel for a long time.

Supernova F1

Pietra Rossa F1

The hybrid is suitable for industrial cultivation, plants are resistant to weather disasters, diseases typical for tomatoes.

The yield per hectare, for example, if landed in the Donetsk region, is about 100 tons. Slightly elongated, cream-like fruit, medium in size with weight up to 80 gr.

Vegetation lasts 115-125 days, simultaneous ripening of tomatoes is observed. Meaty pulp with a dense structure is ideal for processing.

Pietra Rossa F1

Rufus F1

The plant is recognized by a branchy compact bush and a large number of fruits whose weight does not exceed 60-70 gr.

The growing season lasts 65-70 days. The stress-resistant hybrid easily tolerates hot weather and cooling, shows tolerance to fusarium wilt, nematode. There is a touch of sweetness in the taste.

Rufus F1

The following varieties of tomatoes are popular among Russian gardeners.

Irina

Bushes of tomatoes are formed medium in size with dense fruit ovaries weighing up to 70 gr. Tomatoes ripen even at low temperatures.

Increased yield allows to collect more than 100 tons of vegetables per hectare.

For the growing season requires 95 days. Vegetables are well transported due to the elastic peel and dense flesh of sweetish taste.

Irina

Explosion

Hybrid Explosion is an improved version of the White filling, has a strong immunity and the ability to develop at low temperatures and heavy rainfall.

Fruits literally dab a low-growing shrub, red tomatoes on average curtain 200 gr. More than 4 kg of crop is removed from one bush.

Explosion

Alicante

The result of the work of English breeders, is highly resistant to wet environments and fungal infections. Tomatoes are formed in a round form of light red color, the weight reaches 100 gr.

The growing season lasts 110-125 days. Up to 40 tomatoes are removed from the bush if grown correctly.

Alicante

Countryman

Fruits are formed by brushes, externally similar to cream, weight is about 90 gr. The height of the bush reaches only 70-75 cm. The variety is valued for the opportunity to carry out seeding in open ground.

The plant easily tolerates heat and cool in spring. The vegetation period lasts 96-98 days.

Countryman

How can you plant tomatoes to get a good harvest

Selection of seedlings

Some gardeners prefer to buy seedlings on the market, others - to grow independently. In both cases, to plant seedlings are selected with a well-formed root system, a sturdy stem that has reached length 20 cm.

On each escape should have time to form 7-8 leavestheir rich green color indicates a healthy state. Pallor or blotch on the green can signal any disease or violation of the seedlings growing conditions.

When growing seedlings on their own, it is worth considering the timing of seeding and observing the temperature regime at each stage of development.

The rich green color of the seedling sheets indicates its healthy condition.

What is the preparation of the beds?

Before planting seedlings need disinfect the soil a solution of copper sulphate (1 tbsp. funds for a bucket of water). On 1 m2 should take 1.5 liters of working fluid. After that, fertilizers are introduced.

Tomatoes respond well to organics and minerals.

For loam and clay soils, you can use the following mixture: manure humus, peat and sawdust, taken on a bucket. From mineral substances, a mixture of superphosphate (2 tbsp. L.), Potassium sulphate (1 tbsp. L.), Wood ash (2 cups) is suitable. The preparatory work with the soil is completed one week before landing.

Secrets of planting seedlings in the spring

Landing is better to do in cloudy weather or after sunset. At night, shoots will be easier to adapt to the new environment. The scheme of planting is selected based on the varieties of tomatoes. Each bush should be well ventilated and illuminated by sunlight.

Tomatoes with an average ripening period are planted in a row at a distance 50-60 cm from each other. Interval spacing is 50-60 cm. Compact plants are placed at a distance 40 cm.

Holes for seedlings dug on the amount of a spade bayonet. After abundant watering of the dimples and water absorption, the seedlings are alternately transferred to the wells together with the earth clod. It is not recommended to violate the integrity of the root system, so it will take less time to adapt. Work is completed by watering the beds (1-2 liters per bush).

The most important post-transplant care

For the development of the root system and the plant as a whole, oxygen is needed, therefore every 2-3 weeks the flower bed needs loosen (depth of immersion tool 8-12 cm). If the soil is different density, then carry out the work should be more often.

Loosening procedure is often combined with weeding. Weeds provoke an invasion of pests and keep moisture in the beds, which creates favorable conditions for the development of diseases. In addition, the thickened bed poorly ventilated. After the first weeding of the grown seedlings, the soil can be mulched.

Watering It is carried out under a root of tomatoes, it is not necessary to water greens. Of the existing irrigation systems, preference is given to point irrigation, sprinkling provokes shedding of inflorescences, causes blanching of fruits.

The first time after planting to get involved in irrigation is not worth it, it is enough to carry out water procedures 1-2 times a week, not allowing the soil to dry out.

Proper watering seedlings tomato
For the stability of the bushes, many gardeners spend hilling. To do this, under each stem, the soil is scorched.

AT pasynkovane need many varieties, especially large-fruited. Removal of stepsons is carried out every 2 weeks, so that all forces and nutrients are distributed exclusively for the formation of tomatoes.

Pollination methods

In order for the fruit to form in the inflorescence, pollination is required. There are different varieties: pollinated by bees and self-pollinated.

If insects due to weather conditions or for a number of other reasons are not in the garden, then you can pollinate the flowers with your own hands. To do this, determine the male and female inflorescences.

Soft brush is carried out first on the pistils, then pollen is shaken on the stamens. Such manipulation is usually done in greenhouses, and then only with those varieties that need pollination.

In order to attract insects to the field in order to pollinate the crop, it is recommended to plant in the aisle honey plants (basil, marigold, etc.).

Acceptable feed and fertilizer to get a productive tomato

After planting seedlings spend 3-4 feeding.
  1. In 3 weeks after disembarkation seedlings in the soil is introduced fertilizer "Ideal" with the addition of nitrophoska (1 tbsp. L) in a bucket of water. On one tomato consumed 0.5 liters of solution.
  2. When the second flower brush will begin to blossomintroduced a second feed. 10 l of water is mixed: potassium sulfate (1 tsp.), Superphosphate (1 tbsp. L.), Potassium chloride (1 tsp.), Fertilizer "Agricola - Vegeta" (1 tbsp. L.). Another option involves the use of the tool "Signor Tomato" (art. L per 10 liters of water).
  3. When blooming third flower brush Introduce "Sodium HUMATE" or "Ideal."
  4. After 2 weeks, a solution of 10 liters of water and art. l superphosphate.

Mistakes when growing and sowing

To protect your crop from unforeseen losses, you need to familiarize yourself with the mistakes that gardeners often make when growing tomatoes.

Buying seedlings with inflorescences is one of the common mistakes when growing tomatoes.

Among the main ones:

  • planting seedlings or seeds deadlineindicated on the packaging, or the choice of varieties intended for cultivation in the greenhouse;
  • purchase of seedlings with inflorescences (the formation of the ovaries is subsequently disrupted);
  • plentiful watering (provokes rotting of the root system);
  • excessive soil fertilization (leads to intensive development of the stem and leaves, while the inflorescences look sluggish);
  • landing in open ground ahead of schedule (violation of the temperature regime negatively affects the formation of ovaries).

Diseases and pests - what a poison to spray from them

Most of the diseases are caused by violations of the temperature and watering norms. Wet environments and warm weather create optimal conditions for the development of harmful microorganisms.

The following diseases are considered dangerous for tomatoes:

  • Late blightin which brown spots appear on the stem and leaves. On the back of the sheet you can see the characteristic white bloom. Fruits are covered with brown spots. The main reasons for the development of the disease are strong temperature drops, high humidity. Fight against late blight involves spraying: the first time seedlings are processed 20 days after planting with the Zaslon solution, and the second time they are processed another 20 days later with a biological preparation Barrier.
  • Vertex Rot characterized by the appearance of black depressed spots on green fruit. The reason for the development of the disease are: insufficient moisture of the plant, excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizers in the soil, calcium deficiency. When detecting lesions, it is recommended to treat the bushes with calcium nitrate solution. To do this, in a bucket of water diluted with a tablespoon of funds. Strongly affected tomatoes must be removed from the bed and disposed of.
  • Root rot Tomatoes occur due to overmoistening of the soil or are transmitted through contaminated soil. Therefore, before planting, the garden beds should be disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate, and during the growing season of the crop it is strictly necessary to follow the irrigation rules.
  • Anthracnose Tomatoes are recognized by their characteristic brown spots on the stem, leaves and fruits. Tomatoes disease affects more often when they reach maturity. Initially, small round foci appear that quickly grow in size, which you may not notice right away. When signs of disease are found, the plants should be sprayed with Fitolavin.

Among the dangerous pests that can cause significant damage to the crop:

  • Medvedka;
  • wireworm;
  • gnawing scoops;
  • whitefly;
  • melon aphid and others

In many cases, it is possible to defeat insects by spraying the plants with biologics or folk remedies. For the bear it is rational to build traps and dispose of the collected pest populations. Identified parasites need collect from the beds, preventing them from spreading.

One of the effective remedies recommended for use:

  • Basudin;
  • Arrow;
  • Thunder;
  • Phosbecid and others

Timely fertilizer plants strengthens the immune systemwhich makes them unappealing to insects. They love to attack weak and young shoots. A strong culture with a well-formed root and stem will be able to resist diseases and pests, giving the owners a bountiful harvest.

To grow a good harvest outdoors on the street, you need to carefully care for plantings, cover the bushes as needed. In some cases, you need to feed the soil before planting seedlings, but most often you need to start feeding the plants after sowing.

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