Garlic is one of the most common crops that can be found on every garden plot in every region of the country. Such plants produce spicy fruits with a sharp taste, besides garlic is very easy to grow and is not afraid of cold, return frosts and other weather factors.
You can grow a vegetable in the garden or cottage, and sow at home, for example, in a pot at home, on a balcony or in an apartment on a windowsill in the winter.
Basic requirements for growing garlic in the country or in an apartment on a home window sill
Growing garlic is a fairly simple process, the implementation of which is possible even for a beginning gardener. The main thing is to adhere to all the rules and perform the necessary actions in time: to take care of properly, although if you grow properly, it may require hassle.
Deciding to grow a vegetable on your own plot, you first need to choose the appropriate type, because the planting and cultivation of winter and spring differ from each other.
Also, before you plant it on your plot, you should think about a suitable place that will meet all the requirements. The soil must be light, nutritious and have neutral acidity. To achieve all of these indicators on the wrong ground can take a lot of time.Before starting the cultivation of garlic, you must decide on its variety
When planting winter and spring garlic in the garden is the right conditions.
Terms of planting depend not only on the preferences of the gardener and on the climatic conditions of the region, but also on the type that is planned to grow.
Spring garlic is planted in early spring, once the snow melts, but no later than April 10. This species has small heads with chaotically located teeth. A minus of such fruits will be their less saturated and sharp taste, advantage is considered a long shelf life and the ability to use within 12 months.
Winter is planted for the winter, that is, in a temporary period from mid September to mid October. It is very important to take into account the fact that before the first frosts occur, the teeth should have time to build up a powerful root system, on average, this process lasts for 3-4 weeks.
Winter boasts large heads, with even and sharp teeth. The main disadvantage of the form will be the shelf life of 3-4 months.
In the spring, plants are planted as early as possible so that they can mature before the onset of cold weather. An early autumn planting can also ruin the entire crop, because if the frost comes too late, the garlic will start growing and then it will die.The timing of planting garlic plays a very important role
Soil preparation before growing and sowing
It is a harmless culture, but picking up the right place can significantly increase the number of harvested crops. The plant prefers fertile lands with neutral acidity. Also, the ground should be light and breathable. Best of all for such purposes fit loam.
The site must meet the following criteria:
- plenty of sunshinenecessary for fruit ripening;
- on the site should not accumulate melt water and precipitation. Also desirable is the deep location of groundwater;
- Peas, cabbage, zucchini, pumpkin or greens are considered the best precursors for a crop. It is not recommended to plant it in those places where cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, carrots and garlic grew before it.
Regardless of the timing of landing, the land must be prepared in early September. To do this, they dig it up, weed it, clean it of stones and debris, after which the following fertilizers are applied to each square meter:
- 1 bucket of humus or rotted manure;
- 30 grams of superphosphate;
- 20 grams of potassium salt.
Preparation of planting material
Before planting garlic in open ground, planting material must be sort out, choosing from the total mass of damaged, sick, soft, crooked, too small teeth and left without a shell. They are not suitable for planting and are unlikely to be able to give a decent harvest.
Preparation zubkov for planting is as follows:
- for stratification planting material is placed in the refrigerator for 15-20 days;
- then the teeth are disinfected, keeping for 2 hours in a solution of wood ash, potassium permanganate or copper sulfate;
- that the teeth sprout as soon as possible, they are treated with a growth stimulator or wrapped in a damp cloth, cleaned in a plastic bag and kept in this state for 2-3 days.
Landing is carried out according to a certain scheme:
- Initially, the beds make grooves at a distance 20-25 centimeters apart;
- When planting spring garlic, the depth of the furrows should be 7-9 centimeters, and when using winter varieties 15-20 centimeters;
- The distance between individual plants will depend on the size of the planting material. Spring varieties are usually planted at a distance. 6-8 centimeters apart, and winter varieties in the distance 12-15 centimeters.
Teeth dig deep vertically. In that case, if the edge is located to the south, the garlic feathers will grow more green and saturated. If the soil is dry, then immediately after planting it must be watered.
Care for good and large heads and feathers
Care is extremely simple and consists of several familiar operations, which include watering, weeding, loosening and feeding plants.
Water the vegetable in such a way that the soil always stayed wet. In dry weather, such work is done 2-3 times a week, while on rainy days, irrigation can be completely abandoned. It is worth remembering that in August, soil moisture should be stopped. At this time, the bulb begins to gain weight and volume and does not need watering.
All garlic supplements are given together with irrigation, this is necessary for the best absorption of fertilizers. Winter and spring garlic are fertilized according to various schemes.
|Spring garlic||Winter garlic|
|1 top dressing||As soon as the plant releases the first leaves, it is fertilized with nitrogen fertilizers (urea, solution of mullein or bird droppings)||In early spring, after about 7-10 days, after the snow melts, 100 grams of superphosphate, 50 grams of potassium sulfate and 50 grams of ammonium nitrate are applied to 1 square meter of soil.|
|2 dressing||2 weeks after the first top-up make complex mineral fertilizers||After 25-30 days using the same composition.|
|3 dressing||In late June-early July, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied.||The last dressing is made in mid-July, when the head begins to grow.|
For larger heads of garlic, you must remove the arrows each time they reach the size of 15 centimeters.
Diseases and pests
Garlic is often influenced by diseases and pests. Of all the existing diseases in such a culture are most common:
- white, gray and neck rot;
- downy mildew;
- rust, etc.
Insects most commonly found on garlic:
- onion covert;
- tobacco thrips;
- onion flies;
- onion moth;
Unfortunately, many diseases destroy plants, therefore it is impossible to get rid of them, the only way out will be removal of affected garlic and prophylactic treatment of healthy individuals with fungicides or folk remedies, which include ash infusion.
In order to prevent the occurrence of such troubles, you must follow the rules for planting, avoid undesirable neighborhoods and predecessors. It is also very important to pre-disinfect the planting material.
Harvesting and Storage
After a rich harvest of garlic is obtained, it must be kept safe for as long as possible. Collecting fruits of winter garlic spend late July-early August, and spring a month later.
You can see the ripeness of garlic on the following grounds:
- new feathers ceased to form, and the old ones turned yellow and lay down on the ground;
- the visible head has acquired the right color and size.
After harvesting, it is prepared for storage, while doing the following:
- The heads are shaken off the ground and dried for 10 days at a temperature 25 degrees outdoors or in a well-ventilated area;
- The roots and leaves are completely removed, the neck is cut up to 2-5 centimeters;
- At the last stage, the heads are folded into boxes with holes, meshes, or woven into pigtails.
Growing garlic in your own plot is a very interesting activity, during which you can gain useful skills regarding proper planting and plant care. If you follow all the recommendations, then a rich harvest will delight every gardener from year to year.